Congress and many state legislatures have been discussing the possibility of regulating carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen oxides (NOx), chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and other emissions. Key to these discussions is the recommendation that energy efficiency, and specifically electric utility demand-side management (DSM) programs, be used as an emission control option. Methods for incorporating the social or external costs of energy production into utility planning are being developed, and estimates of potential emission impacts attributed to DSM programs have been calculated. However, little research has calculated the actual emission impacts from existing DSM programs.
The increasing need for electric energy services and fossil fuel generation create an apparent conflict with the risks and regulations associated with global climate change and clean air.. Electric utility DSM programs can be used to resolve these conflicts by providing equal or better energy services and a net reduction in emissions. This paper summarizes three separate related research projects. The first study, "Impacts of Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs on Power Plant Emissions" (Felix et al. 1990 - draft), collects utility and state data on existing DSM programs to approximate the level of SO2, NOx, and CO2 reductions on a regional and national basis. Phase I of this study is a completed survey of DSM savings by state. This data is reported here.
The second and third studies, "Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Electrification of the Industrial and Transportation Sectors" (Geba et at 1989) and "Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Electrification of the Residential and Commercial Sectors (Geba et al. 1990 - draft), compare selected high efficiency electric technologies with fossil-fueled alternatives to determine CO2 emissions. Through these studies, we have begun to quantify the emissions impacts from utility DSM programs and efficient electric equipment.