The Take-Back Effect--Fact or Fiction?

Research Report U933


Steve Nadel


Economists and other analysts have postulated that savings from efficiency measures are reduced as consumers use some of the money they save to purchase increased comfort or to operate energy-consuming equipment more intensively. This paper reviews more than 40 energy efficiency program evaluations that address this issue and concludes that in most situations there is little or no take-back effect. Presented at the Energy Program Evaluation Conference.